How to Treat Impacted Stools

1.Look for any of the following signs and symptoms of fecal impaction: absence of bowel movements, a sensation of fullness in the rectum, distention in the abdomen or abdominal discomfort, loss of urinary control, a firm mass in the lower left abdomen, watery stools or discharge from the rectum.
2.Drink copious amounts of water and avoid starch and meats.
3.Eat plenty of fruits, leafy vegetables, bran and high-fiber cereals. Dried fruits such as apricots, dates and prunes are a great way to get fiber while backpacking.
4.Administer a stool softener, laxative, or milk of magnesia.
5.Administer a glycerin suppository to encourage passage of the stool and to prevent the hardened stool from damaging the rectal lining. If a glycerin suppository is unavailable in the field you may have to improvise an enema using mineral oil.
6.Digitally remove the stool with the following steps if none of the above measures successfully evacuates the stool.
7.Put on a latex glove and administer an enema of glycerin or mineral oil. Lubricate the latex glove and insert the index finger into the rectum and gently locate the mass of stool.
8.Break up the mass of stool piece by piece with gentle prodding, taking care not to damage to the rectal lining. Attempt to eliminate the pieces on a piece-by-piece basis using a glycerin suppository.
9.Evacuate the person if the impacted stool can't be located with a gloved finger, if digital probing fails to eliminate the stool, if a fever is present, or if the rectal lining is at all damaged in the removal process. 
Tips: Digital removal may be performed on oneself, but will require the supportive assistance of another person.  
Fecal impaction is a potentially dangerous situation requiring aggressive intervention in order to eliminate the feces. Prevention is key - catching fecal impaction too late can require surgery.
Evacuate immediately if a person has not defecated in four to five days or has a distended abdomen. They will require the help of a trained medical professional to remove the stool.
The passage of a hard stool may be quite painful and measures should be taken to protect the rectal lining from damage.
Never leave a person who is attempting to eliminate a fecal impaction alone in the attempt. This procedure may be quite painful, and a person may need assistance if the rectal lining is damaged or he or she loses consciousness from the pain.
This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment. 

How to Customize a Model Train Layout

1.Get some model paint in white, black, gray and brown.
2.Get some modeling clay.
3.Get some dirt and some moss.
4.Go to the library and get a book on the history of trains or a particular train line.
5.Get some turpentine.
6.Mix the white paint with the turpentine until it looks cloudy.
7.Brush the white paint on the locomotive to make it look weathered.
8.Form the clay into topography around the tracks. Add moss and dirt around the layout as desired to create gulleys and hills.
9.Add decals to buildings to identify them. Spark plug stickers over a model gas station will look like a billboard, for example.
1..Go to the hobby shop.
1..Use the history book for your train line to buy decals that fit the train, including town names whenever possible. Be consistent. Try not to put a freight sticker on an Amtrak passenger car, for example. You want the scene to reflect real life.
1..If you want, paint small figures to look like people you know, and place them as passengers boarding the train at the station. 
Tips: The more detail, the better. 
Warnings: Too many stickers can be distracting. Let the cars themselves stand out more than the decorations.   

How to Overcome Your Class Reunion Angst

1.Take an afternoon or evening to jot down all of your positive school memories, look over photos of old friends and listen to music from your school years.
2.Make a mental list of all that you have accomplished and how you have grown through the years.
3.Get in touch with at least two former classmates. Reminiscing with old pals will help you to get in the reunion spirit.
4.Ask to help with the reunion planning. There's always room for one more planning committee member, and it will help awaken your enthusiasm for the event.
5.Arrive in your hometown one day early if you don't live there. Spend quality time visiting your favorite spots, driving around your old neighborhood and dwelling on nostalgia.
6.Look your best. Rather than crash dieting, stepping up your health and fitness program several months prior to the reunion will ensure that you look and feel your best. 
Remember that everyone had the same insecurities and issues that you did in school. Approach the reunion as an opportunity for reconciliation, understanding and fun!
Take a hot, soapy bubble bath and a long stroll the day before the reunion to unwind and reevaluate your nervousness.   

How to Hire a Tile Installer

1.Shop around and price the tile you want from an independent tile supplier. Your contractor may recommend a supplier or provide for a material allowance in the bid, so it's wise to be an educated consumer.
2.Think about what kind of patterns you want on the floor or surface you're tiling. Sketch it out on paper.
3.Ask friends and relatives for recommendations of tile installers, or look in the yellow pages under "tile contractors."
4.Have several installers come to your home to measure the square footage of the project and give estimates.
5.Make sure that the exact material you want is specified in the bids, whether you use a supplier the contractor recommends or you'll be supplying the tiles yourself.
6.Ask about the costs of having your old floor or countertop removed before the installation begins. (You may decide to do this yourself, pay the installer extra to complete this work, or hire someone completely different for the removal.)
7.Ask the installer for pictures of past jobs. This step is particularly important for projects involving elaborate designs or expensive materials.
8.Ask the contractors for references from past customers. Contact the references and ask if they're happy with the work.
9.Select the contractor with the best combination of price and satisfied customers.
10.Execute a contract that clearly specifies the material to be used, start date, completion date, cost and payment schedule. Try to minimize up-front deposits, and keep the payment schedule as closely aligned as possible to the progress of the work and the delivery of materials to the site. If the material is to be laid in a pattern, make sure that a sketch is attached to the contract. 
Many types of tile are available and the cost varies enormously. Expect to spend approximately $6 to $7 per square foot (labor and material) for a basic bathroom tile, with costs rising to $8 to $12 for somewhat higher-end choices for kitchens and entry foyers.
At the high end, specialty tiles begin above $10, with marble and granite prices typically starting around $15 per square foot. Prices for hand-painted tiles and rare marbles and granites can exceed $30 to $50. (These prices reflect labor and material costs.)
Removal costs for old tile or linoleum are not included in these prices and can vary considerably.
Special designs or odd room layouts that require excessive cutting of tiles will result in significantly higher costs for labor.
To save money on a basic job, try to buy tiles on sale at a tile supplier or building supply house and contract out the labor portion of the job. 
Warnings: Never just go to one supplier recommended by an installer without checking others.  

How to Choose Between a Band and a DJ for Your Wedding

1.Set a budget for entertainment. A live band tends to be more expensive than a DJ. For a 4-hour reception, a DJ can cost anywhere from $200 to $1,000, while a four-piece band can cost between $1,000 and $4000. (Note: the prices of both tend to go up, depending on reputation, demand and quality of equipment.)
2.Decide upon the length of the reception. Bands tire more easily than DJs and may not be able to work as long.
3.Consider the location of your reception. Is it too small to house a full band? Does the establishment place restrictions on the types of music played?
4.Factor in the level of formality. Live music is often considered the more traditional and dignified choice. DJs are the rowdier, hipper option.
5.Listen to them play. Sit in on an event, attend the band's auditions or ask for a recorded tape.
6.Check out the bandleader. Is he or she charismatic? One benefit of a live band is that the leader can double as a master of ceremonies.
7.Question the DJs about their album collections. DJs typically have a much broader repertoire than a live band and can easily add any special songs you desire.
8.Consider your priorities and weigh the pros and cons of each. Then make a choice and book your entertainment. Bands and DJs can be booked a year in advance. 
Tips: Be sure to ask family, friends, reception site coordinators, music stores and local musicians associations for recommendations. Often, the best DJs and bands do not have to advertise.   

How to Buy a Nintendo Gameboy

1.Know what specific features are unique to the Nintendo Gameboy: an 8-bit CPU; 8-kb memory and RAM; 160 x 144 dots resolution on a 2.6-inch reflective LCD screen; 56-color display capability from a palette of 32,000; 4-channel stereo sound, and built-in infrared communication.
2.Be aware that the Gameboy has advanced technologically with the Gameboy Color model and that there are certain games that have been designed exclusively for this new console.
3.Expect to find a Gameboy Color for $70. Games range from $15-30.
4.Remember that a number of unique accessories have been designed for the Gameboy including a Gameboy printer and camera.
5.Find a Nintendo Gameboy at local and online electronic and toy retailers. 
What distinguishes the Gameboy from other systems is its portability. Weighing in at 4.5 ounces, you can carry this popular console practically anywhere.
The infrared communication feature makes possible the wireless transfer of game character information between Gameboys.
Generally speaking, the more games you play on your Gameboy, the more enjoyment you'll get out of it. Action, adventure, combat, racing and role-playing games are available for the Nintendo Gameboy.    Steps:
1.Know what specific features are unique to the Sega Dreamcast: 128-bit, 3-D processor; built-in 56K modem for interactive gaming online; 24-MB memory; 64-bit voice, CD-quality sound; four built-in controller ports; and built-in, high-speed expansion ports.
2.Expect to find a Dreamcast with one controller for $200. Additional controllers cost roughly $30. Games range from $40-60.
3.Remember that the Dreamcast is still relatively new. The variety of games and acccessories available will grow larger.
4.Find a Sega Dreamcast at local and online electronic and toy retailers. 
The Dreamcast is noted for its high-quality graphics and sound, its speed and its multiplayer capabilities.
Generally speaking, the more games you play on your system, the more enjoyment you'll get out of it.
Consider renting a Sega Dreamcast beforehand to help you decide if you want to make the purchase. Numerous video rental venues afford this option.    Steps:
1.Know what features are unique to the Sony PlayStation: a 32-bit RISC 33.9-MHz CPU; a CD-ROM interface; 2 mb main, 1 mb video, and 512 kb sound memory; 640-by-480-pixel graphics resolution; 24-bit color; and CD-quality, 24-channel sound.
2.Expect to find a base model PlayStation (one controller and no games) for $100. Additional controllers cost roughly $30. Games range from $30 to $60.
3.Note the numerous games and accessories available for the PlayStation. No company has licensed more game producers than Sony.
4.Find a Sony PlayStation at local and online electronic and toy retailers. 
Generally speaking, the more games you play on your system, the more enjoyment you'll get out of it.
Consider renting a PlayStation beforehand to help you decide if you want to make the purchase. Numerous video rental venues afford this option.
The PlayStation 2, Sony's next-generation machine, is tentatively slated for a March 2000 release.   Steps:
1.Choose from the variety of controller options: wireless ($50); stingray design for easier analog control ($15); and standard controllers in colors such as black, blue, green, gray, red and yellow ($30).
2.Add a memory pack to your system. Memory packs are used to save game progress and settings. They come in a variety of sizes ($8 to $40).
3.Consider rumble and expansion packs for your controllers. A rumble pack enables you to experience every blast, shake and hit, while an expansion pack is used to enhance a game graphically ($10 to $30).
4.Choose a racing wheel designed for car racing games ($15 to $55).
5.Be aware of miscellaneous accessories: an RF switch or adapter for those TVs without audio/video connections; extension cables for controllers; game and system organizers; system carrying cases and backpacks; and replacement adapters and wires ($10 to $60).
6.Select from the wide variety of games - adventure, action, role-playing, combat and racing.
7.Look for these accessories and others at local and online electronic and toy retailers.  
Memory-pack requirements for a specific game will be explicitly stated in the game's instructions. Suggestions for expansion-pack use will also be mentioned, although use of the expansion pack is seldom required.
Hint books for virtually every major game are available. Consult them if you get stuck or if you just want to know all the ins and outs of any particular title ($10).
Taking proper care of your Nintendo 64, games and accessories will ensure their longevity.    

How to Find Pen Pals Online

1.Do a search for a combination of words like "pen pal", "find" and "write".
2.Try using several different search engines to see what types of things you find.
3.Visit some of the sites that come up.
4.Look for those sites that seem to meet your goals, whether it is to find a friend across the world or to develop a romance in the next state.
5.Find services that are geared to your age, whether you are a student, a parent or a senior citizen. Different sites may cater to different audiences.
6.Consider using sites that ask you to share your interests and then match you up with someone who is similar. This can save you the time of searching through hundreds of ads yourself.
7.Always find out if any fee is involved before you sign up for any services.
8.Check through some of the ads of people seeking pen pals to see if any catch your attention.
9.Remember that some sites include photographs of the pen pals so you will know what your pen pal looks like. This can be useful if you are hoping your pen pal will turn into a date.
1..Post your own advertisement and let others do the work and contact you. 
Look for chatrooms hosted by pen-pal sites and participate in an ongoing discussion.
Be on the lookout for others who have similar viewpoints and might be good pen pals. 
Warnings: Always be cautious when you give out personal information. You can never play it too safe.   Steps:
1.Start by visiting Prime Timers Worldwide (see the Related Sites), particularly if you are looking for something local. The organization has chapters in the United States and Canada and is aimed specifically at mature gay men and their admirers.
2.Stop next at the American Society on Aging's Lesbian and Gay Aging Issues Network (see the Related Sites). The site provides text from the society's newsletter along with links and more.
3.Take a minute to look at the site of the Pride Senior Network (see the Related Sites). The New York City-based organization offers a services directory and other resources that can benefit older gay men everywhere.
4.Be sure you visit the Seniors section at PlanetOut (see the Related Sites). Click on Seniors under the People tab.
5.Find a pretty nice listing of other resources in Gayscape's Mature Gays and Lesbians section (see the Related Sites). The site has links to lots of organizations and personal home pages. 
Tips: Retirement communities for gays and lesbians are beginning to spring up around the country. You'll find links to these communities on the sites listed above. Many gays and lesbians have been forced back into the closet by mainstream retirement communities and nursing homes, but gay facilities will respect your orientation if you become incapacitated in your final years.   

How to Buy School Supplies Online

1.List all the items you need to buy such as pens, pencils, paper, calculators and book bags.
2.Log onto a Web site that sells school supplies, such as an office supply store or bookstore, or simply click the boxes in the shopping list below for specific items and choose the "shop online" option.
3.Scroll through the list of items on the Web site. Most sites present you with pictures to help you choose. Add the items you want to buy to your shopping list by double-clicking them.
4.Click the "done" or "finished" button when you have selected everything you want to buy.
5.Re-check your list when the Web site prompts you to do so.
6.Enter your credit card number in the space provided, if the list is correct. If the list is not correct, make the necessary changes.
7.Enter the zip code where the items will be shipped.
8.Keep in mind that your items should arrive within five to seven business days or sooner, depending on the company. 
Tips: Shopping online is convenient and easy, but watch for shipping and handling charges, which can add up.   

How to Grow Sea Kale (Crambe)

Choosing Sea Kale
1.Look for plants at nurseries in spring and summer.
2.Buy sea kale in 6-inch to 1-gallon containers.
3.Choose healthy-looking plants with signs of new growth in leaf and flower bud. 
Planting Sea Kale

4.Plant sea kale in full sun in well-drained soil.
5.Add a light application of organic fertilizer to the planting hole.
6.Place the plants no deeper than they were when growing in containers.
7.Set the plants two feet apart.
8.Mulch around but not on top of the plants with three inches of organic compost.
9.Water well until soil is completely moist. 
Caring for Sea Kale

10.Remove old foliage in spring using bypass pruners to cut off the old stems.
11.Apply a light application of organic fertilizer on top of the soil in early spring (follow package directions).
12.Mulch around but not on top of the plants with three inches of organic compost in spring.
13.Water well weekly until soil is completely moist in summers with no rainfall. 
Overall Tips:
Grow sea kale in zones 6 to 9 of the U.S.D.A. Plant Hardiness Map.
The sea kale described here is Crambe cordifolia. It is the most common. Another sea kale, Crambe maritima, grows to only two feet.   

How to Preserve Your Watercolor Painting

Before Framing
1.Place your painting between two pieces of acid-free paper to prevent damage from dust and dirt.
2.Lay it flat and keep it out of the light.
3.Store it in a cool, dry place. 
When painting a picture, use acid-free paper and high-quality paints. Paints should have a light fastness rating of 1 or 2.
When purchasing original artwork, speak to the artist if possible. Ask about the type of paper and paint quality used for the painting. 

4.Frame your painting as soon as possible to protect it from dirt, dust and handling.
5.Mat your painting using acid-free mat board. A mat allows air to circulate around the painting and prevents damage from moisture.
6.Hinge mount your painting. Mounting your painting provides support and protects it from bending and warping.
7.Frame your painting under ultraviolet (UV)-protective glass to protect it from fading.
8.Seal the back of the picture frame with paper to keep dust and insects out.
9.Hang your painting away from direct sunlight. 
Vacuum mounting is not recommended for quality artwork. This process permanently fuses the painting to the mat board, reducing the value of the piece. It is recommended for inexpensive posters only.
It is worth the investment to have good quality art mounted, matted and framed by a licensed, professional framer. 
Warnings: Do not place artwork directly against the framing glass. This will trap moisture and damage the painting.   Steps:
1.Print the first color by following the instructions for printing a single-color silk screen in the Related Hows.
2.Allow the image to dry fully. Silk screen inks dry fast. Within 2 hours you'll be ready for your next "drop" (ready to print again).
3.Re-clamp the silk screen to your printing unit, well side up.
4.Raise the silk screen and prop it up using a leg prop or brick.
5.Use a sponge to wash off your acetate for reuse, if you haven't already done so.
6.Mix your ink well, making sure you've included at least 10 percent clear extender (either flat or glossy) and one capful of drying retardant for each 8 oz. of ink.
7.Stand at the open side of the silk screen.
8.Pour a generous amount of ink into the low side of the silk screen well and below the image. Pour a thick bead of ink onto the screen above the image (so that the image is framed in two lines of ink, with the lower line thicker than the upper).
9.Hold the squeegee at a 45-degree angle with the handle toward you. Use light, even pressure and flood the image by pushing the thinner bead of ink toward the thicker bead.
1..Drop the frame onto the acetate by rotating the leg prop.
1..Grasp the squeegee at both ends, holding it slightly tilted toward you. Set the squeegee edge down into the big ink bead, capturing enough ink to print the image (probably about one-quarter of the ink).
1..Pull the squeegee across the entire image, applying firm, even pressure.
1..Lift up the screen and re-prop it using the leg prop.
1..Hold the lifted edge of the frame steady with one hand. With the other, hold the squeegee at a 45-degree angle with the handle toward you. Re-flood the image by pushing the ink back toward the low side of the well.
1..Take a dry print and slip it underneath the acetate guide and position the second color over the first, taking extra care to register (by eye) the images. That is, make sure the image layers match.
1..Remove the acetate (lift it and flip it over and out of the way).
1..Use your registration guides to outline the near right-hand corner of the print and the right-hand edge near the far corner. You're making a guide for this drop so that the second color ends up in the same place in relation to the first on all prints. Always use the same corners for registration - whichever corners you used the first time, even if they're not the right-hand ones.
1..Lower the silk screen frame by rotating the leg prop and print (as in steps 11 to 14).
1..Repeat for each additional color. 
Usually colors layer lightest to darkest (that is, you begin with the lightest color and proceed to the darkest) - but you may wish to vary the order. Experiment.
The biggest challenge is that, eventually, the ink will dry and clog the mesh of the screen. This usually happens right at the beginning as you are getting set up and making adjustments. Use a wet rag to loosen ink from the bottom by rubbing over the mesh. If it's really a problem, sandwich the screen between a wet rag (top) and dry rag (bottom) and rub in concentric, opposite circles. (Print a few samples on scrap paper to eliminate water after using the wet-rag technique.) If all else fails, wash out the entire screen and start over.
To alleviate drying and clogging, have everything set up and set out (paper, registration guides, acetate, hunger, thirst and toilet needs) before you put ink in the well. After you put ink in the well, work steadily - don't let the screen stand for more than 3 minutes or you'll risk clogging.
If the ink is sliding and smearing under the edge of the open area, tape a few layers of cardboard to the printing unit baseboard so that, when you lower the screen frame, it will stop just above the level of the print. This will make the silk screen fabric pop up more quickly. 
Even though this is not a highly toxic process, make sure your work area is well ventilated.
The registration gets trickier with the addition of each color, so take enough time to get it right.