How to Defend Against a Surprise Attack From the Rear

1.Turn quickly and shift your balance onto your rear leg and lean to keep your upper body away from the attack.
2.Bend the knee of your forward leg and pull your knee back toward your chest as you turn your side to the attacker.
3.Keep your heel close as you pull your leg back; your heel will point out with your toes pulled back.
4.Strike out directly at the attacker's knee with your heel. Your heel will be the highest point and the contact surface of the strike.
5.Pull your leg back immediately after the strike to prevent your attacker from attempting to grab your leg.
6.Run away as the attacker struggles to recover. 
Always try to avoid a conflict if at all possible. If you can't avoid a conflict, escape at the first opportunity.
Practice turning quickly and striking the knee as one fluid movement. 
Warnings: Self-defense techniques can cause severe injury. Be cautious when you practice with a partner. If confronted by an attacker, always try to escape first. 

How to Buy Electrical Fixtures

1.Make a list of fixtures that you require. Measure the available space for each fixture.
2.Consider areas where you would prefer standard recessed lights. You can have your electrician supply these.
3.Consider your lighting needs in each location. Do you need extra light for doing detailed work in a given area? Do you prefer softer lighting in another?
4.Review your home to consider other areas where you may want to add lighting. For example, do you want lighting under your cabinets (to illuminate countertops)?
5.Think about areas where you may want a light/ceiling fan combination or other special item.
6.Visit several electrical supply stores or home centers.
7.Select fixtures for each location.
8.Consider the size and design of each fixture relative to its intended location. For example, will a fixture hang too low and impede movement?
9.Review your choices to determine any problems. For example, does a fixture require expensive or hard-to-find bulbs? Will it be physically difficult to replace bulbs in a certain fixture?
10.Check with your electrician before you buy if you have any doubts about the usability of a given fixture.
11.Purchase your chosen fixtures and arrange for delivery.
12.Consider buying extra bulbs for convenience. 
You may want to inquire about energy-efficient fixtures and bulbs. Some bulbs may last many times longer than standard ones, saving considerable money in the long run.
It makes sense to give very serious thought to an overall lighting plan when building or renovating. Recessed, under-counter, and other built-in lighting can be a tremendous convenience.
Always consider practical matters such as cleaning when selecting fixtures, especially elaborate ones that will hang in inaccessible places.   

How to Buy Flowers Online

1.Type the word "flowers" into a search engine such as Alta Vista or Yahoo. If desired, you can get more specific by entering "roses" or "tulips." You can also click a Related Site or click the box for "flowers" in the shopping list below and choose the "shop online" function.
2.Carefully read the guarantee, delivery and refund information on each site. This will help you feel more secure if you are worried about the quality of the flowers or the expediency of delivery.
3.Browse the sites. You can often find special featured arrangements or seasonal specials that will save you money and fulfill your flower needs.
4.If you want to survey the available arrangements, click "Arrangements" or browse by category (birthday, sympathy or baby, for example).
5.Note that some sites send flowers directly from the grower to the recipient, while others send orders through a local florist. If this makes any difference to you, read the information on the site about how the flowers are supplied, and choose accordingly.
6.Choose the flowers you want delivered. Pay careful attention to options offered such as size of arrangement, color of flowers, color of vase, delivery in a box or vase, and inclusion of an enclosure or gift card. Note that all the options mentioned may not be available on all sites.
7.Enter the date when you want the flowers delivered. Be sure to allow enough time for your order to be processed. Check the site's delivery instructions if you're not sure you've allowed enough time.
8.Complete the payment and delivery information. When you order flowers for someone else, you will need that person's address (including zip code) and phone number (including area code).
9.Fill in the payment information.
1..Before submitting your order, check the final cost, including all shipping and handling costs.
1..If you are satisfied, submit your order. 
If given the option, register on the site. You may then be eligible for special offers, benefits and discounts.
If you can't afford real flowers, consider sending a "virtual" arrangement. You choose the arrangement, and then the person you are sending it to will be notified by e-mail to go to a Web site to view the flower arrangement and a message from the sender. This service is usually free. 
Warnings: If you are sending the flowers to someone else, make sure that the recipient is likely to be home on the day of delivery. If this is a concern, call the site's toll-free number or e-mail for information on delivery policies and options.   

How to Take an Essay Exam

1.Look over the entire exam so that you know all the tasks that lie before you.
2.Order the questions according to what you know best. Start with the one you feel you can answer best.
3.Set a time limit for each question, and stick to it.
4.Make an outline to structure your answer. Follow your outline as you write.
5.Don't look over your answer once you're done; instead, move on to the next question. If you have time left over, then go over your answers.
6.Remember to pay more attention to content than to style. Your teacher understands the tight constraints of an essay exam and will make allowances. 
Your most effective weapon in taking an essay exam is studying well. (See "How to Study for an Essay Exam.")
Bring a watch so that you don't have to rely on anyone else's timekeeping.
If your teacher likes certain buzzwords, throw them in. Just make sure you use them correctly. 
Warnings: If you feel a time crunch, don't panic. Instead, take a deep breath, and spend a minute or two thinking about how to rebudget your time.   Steps:
1.Study hard for the exam (see Related How).
2.Bring as much material as the teacher or professor will allow. If you're lucky, this will include lecture notes and study notes.
3.Decide on the order in which you will answer the questions. First tackle the questions you're most confident answering, to help get you into the groove.
4.Allot yourself a realistic amount of time to answer each question.
5.Scan through your materials for anything that might be relevant to the question.
6.Use sticky notes or tabs to mark places where you find useful information.
7.Make an outline for your answer based both on your knowledge and on the information you found.
8.Write your answer by following the outline and looking up material as you go.
9.Repeat this process for each question.
1..Don't look over your answer once you're done; instead, move on to the next question. If you have spare time at the end of the exam, go over your answers at that point. 
Bring a watch so that you don't have to rely on anyone else's timekeeping.
Watch the time closely as you write your answers. The problem with an open-book exam is that you have so much information at your disposal that you could write forever.
Pay more attention to content than to style. Your teacher understands the tight constraints of a timed exam and will make allowances. 
Avoid accusations of cheating by making sure you only bring the materials allowed by your teacher or professor.
If you're running short on time, don't panic, since panic feeds on itself. Instead, take a deep breath and think about how to re-allocate your time.   Steps:
1.Write down the date.
2.Draw a vertical line down the lined portion of the page, about one-third of the way over from the left margin.
3.Write down categories and questions on the left side of the line as the lecture proceeds - for instance, "What to do if you catch fire."
4.Put specifics and answers on the right side of the line - for instance, "1. Stop; 2. Drop; 3. Roll."
5.Use abbreviations to keep up with your professors. Simple symbols include an up arrow for "increase" and a right arrow for "led to" or "resulted in."
6.Note anything you're unclear about at the top of the page, and ask about it during the question period. 
Number lists for ease of structuring and recall.
Review your lecture notes the evening of the day you took them. This will help the knowledge stick in your mind.
Consider studying for exams by covering the right side of your notes and using the left side as a "trigger" to help you recall details.   Steps:
1.Budget enough time for taking notes. The time you spend now will pay off down the line with less review time and increased retention.
2.Date your notes, and write full bibliographic information next to the date, including author, title, publication, date of publication, city, publisher, and volume number for journal articles.
3.Take notes in outline form to structure the material, and break it into related chunks and subchunks.
4.Use the structure of the book (or article) as the structure of your notes. For instance, chapters correspond to major headings, chapter sections to subheadings.
5.Note anything that is pertinent to the author's argument; try to avoid trivial minutiae. Important points tend to come in introductory and concluding paragraphs.
6.Distinguish facts from opinions, and quotations from summaries, in a way that will make it clear which is which when you review your notes.
7.Review your reading notes the next day, and do it again a few days later. This is a time-efficient way of retaining the material. 
Consider using index cards if you're taking notes for a research paper. Be sure to list the bibliographic information on a separate, numbered card. This will make your notes much easier to organize.
One way of deciding what is relevant is to "cheat" by reading the conclusion first so that you'll know what's important as soon as you come across it in the text.
Use abbreviations in your notes. For instance, an upward-pointing arrow for "increase" and a delta for "change." 
Warnings: If you're writing down a quotation, make sure you get it exactly right.   

How to Date Safely

1.Meet in public places. If possible, double date or go out with a group of people.
2.Go Dutch. By paying for your portion you won't feel as if you are under any kind of obligation.
3.Remember that alcohol affects your judgment and lessens your inhibitions. If you are drinking, keep your drink in sight at all times.
4.Don't assume just because a person claims to be religious that he's safe.
5.Use your own mode of transportation. Your mom was right - don't ride with strangers. Always have your own ride to and from a date. And leave with a full tank.
6.Arrange to meet your date; don't let him pick you up at home.
7.Be cautious about letting someone know exactly where you live. It's scary to be stalked later if things don't work out.
8.Avoid secluded areas such as beaches and parks.
9.Listen to your gut. If something doesn't feel right, it probably isn't. 
Tips: Always let someone else know where you're going and who you'll be with. You might even consider arranging a time to call and check in.    

How to Grow Cup Flower (Nierembergia)

Choosing Cup Flower
1.Look for plants at nurseries in spring through summer, and year-round in warm climates.
2.Buy cup flowers in 4- or 6-inch containers.
3.Choose healthy-looking plants with signs of new growth in leaf and flower bud.
4.Buy seeds for cup flower year-round at nurseries and from catalogs. 
Planting Cup Flower

5.Plant cup flower in full sun and well-drained soil. Image a.)
6.Add a light application of organic fertilizer to the planting hole. Image b.)
7.Place the plants no deeper than they were growing in the containers. Image c.)
8.Set the plants 6 inches apart.
9.Mulch around - but not on top of - the plants with 3 inches of organic compost. Image d.)
10.Water well until soil is completely moist. Image e.)
11.Plant seeds in early spring in the garden where you want the plants to grow.
12.Cover seeds with 1/4 inch compost.
13.Make sure the seeds do not dry out before they germinate.   Caring for Cup Flower
14.Cut off old flower stems with bypass pruners.
15.Remove old foliage in spring using bypass pruners to cut off the old stems.
16.Apply a light application of organic fertilizer on top of the soil; follow package directions.
17.Mulch around - but not on top of - the plants with 3 inches of organic compost in spring.
18.Water well weekly until soil is completely moist in summers with no rainfall. 
Overall Tips:
Grow cup flower in zones 8 to 10 of the U.S.D.A. Plant Hardiness Map, or as an annual in colder regions.
Cup flower will bloom the first year from seed. 

How to Talk to a Computer Salesperson

Educate Yourself
1.Understand that RAM and cache are short-term memory. Each is like a sieve: The newest information entered pushes out the oldest information. RAM controls how many different things you can do at one time. Although more is better, if you restrict your computer use to simple tasks (word processing, check balancing), you don't need much RAM. Games, however, can take up lots of RAM; graphics and sound are space hogs.
2.Understand that the processor is like a speedometer. It controls how fast you can go, but not necessarily how fast you will go. Few applications without moving video will challenge the speed capabilities of contemporary processors.
3.Understand that a hard disk is a digital equivalent of a file cabinet: You can put in only so much before you need to conduct file maintenance.
4.Avoid making the size of the hard disk a significant factor in your computer buying decision, since storage technology and prices are improving.
5.Understand that expansion ports, expansion slots, sound cards, video cards, video RAM, modems and speakers add functionality and upgradability to your computer.  
Tips: Think of the processor as your brain. Imagine you need to get information from a map. If your brain can find the map in your hands (cache), access is very fast. If the map is by the front door (RAM), access is a little slower. If the map is in the glove compartment (hard disk) in your car, access is slow.  
Know What to Ask

6.Tell the salesperson what you plan to do with the machine and how long you want it to be functional.
7.Find out what internal hardware and pre-loaded software is included with the models you're considering.
8.Ask about reliability and customer satisfaction with specific brands.
9.Ask about manufacturer's warranties and store service contracts.
1..Ask about return policies and restocking fees.
1..Ask "What's the catch?" when you find a low price.    

How to Select a Gift for a 7-Year-Old Girl

1.Ponder her point of view: Does she like to read? Play sports? Dress up? Tinker on the computer?
2.Browse a toy store, real or virtual, for something that looks like it might suit her tastes: A new mystery book? A backyard basketball hoop? A makeup kit? A computer game?
3.Trust your instincts, if you know her well. Choose something you think she's just got to like.
4.Check with her parents if you want the inside scoop. They'll know what's likely to please her - and they'll also know what she already has.
5.Be practical: Buy clothes or school supplies.
6.Give a gift certificate from a store you like, and she'll have a chance to pick out her own present.
7.Think long-term and make a contribution to her college fund. 
Tips: Make sure whatever you settle on is returnable, so you don't add to that stack of unused items in the garage. 
Warnings: Check labels and packaging to make certain your gift is safe for a seven-year-old. You don't want to be an unwitting contributor to an accident.   

How to Send an Electronic Postcard

1.Click on the related sites provided on the left to view Web sites offering electronic postcards.
2.Or for additional information, visit a search engine such as Hotbot or Infoseek.
3.Type in the keywords "electronic postcards."
4.Press Enter on your keyboard or click the Search button to submit your query.
5.Click on a site that best suits your interests or needs from the list of search results provided by the search engine. Select the category of the card you'd like to send.
6.Follow the directions provided by the site to create and send a personalized greeting card.
7.Fill in the e-mail address of the recipient and your e-mail address as the sender.
8.Press or click the Preview button to see exactly how your card will appear to the recipient. Most Web sites offer this feature.
9.Press the Send button when you have finished to send it to that special someone.  
Tips: You can change the background, add music and do other things on most of the sites to make the postcard your own creation.   

How to Apply Fungicides Safely

1.Test the sprayer every time you use it. Fill it with water, pump up the pressure and test to see that the nozzle is not plugged. Release the pressure by unscrewing the lid slightly.
2.Remove the lid. Leave the testing water in the tank.
3.Measure the amount of fungicide exactly and according to label directions. Add the fungicide to the water in the sprayer. Rinse the measuring device by adding more water to the tank to make up the balance.
4.Screw on the top, being careful not to cross the threads. Tighten so that the pressure will not escape from the tank.
5.Pump the handle to increase the pressure inside the tank.
6.Spray the plants, making sure to cover both upper and lower sides of the leaves. There needs to be visible moisture on the leaves for the applied material to work.
7.Spray out all of the material in the tank. Don't leave any unused fungicide in the tank.
8.Clean the empty tank over a dirt area, never over concrete or in a sink. Rinse the tank three separate times, spraying clean water through the nozzle each time. 
Use organic fungicides as a first step. Baking soda, sulfur powder and copper/oil sprays are very effective against most fungus diseases.
Keep the area under your plants raked up and clean to prevent fungus diseases in the first place.
Keep plants pruned and spaced correctly so that they have maximum air circulation, which discourages fungal disease. 
Although effective, fungicides are among the most toxic chemical in your garden arsenal and should be handled with extreme caution.
Never mix more chemicals than you intend to use at one time.
When spraying fungicides, wear protective clothing, including safety goggles, respirator, neoprene gloves and long sleeves.
Never carry a sprayer by the hose; always use the handle. Hoses will work themselves loose if not treated with care. Check hose connectors frequently.
Keep a dedicated set of measuring tools in the garden shed - don't use measuring tools from your kitchen for fungicides.