How to Take a Temperature

For Adults
1.Clean your glass thermometer with isopropyl alcohol before using it, then dip the tip into some cool water, or wipe with a tissue, to remove the taste of the alcohol.
2.Shake down your glass thermometer until the mercury line is below 96.6 degrees F.
3.Slide the tip of the thermometer under one side of the tongue, well into the back of the mouth.
4.Close your mouth around the thermometer using your lips - don't clench the glass thermometer with your teeth. Breathe through your nose, with your mouth closed.
5.Leave the thermometer under your tongue for 3 full minutes.
6.Remove the thermometer and hold it under a bright light, so you can see how high the mercury has risen. An arrow will point to the normal temperature, which is 98.6 degrees F. 
Tips: For an oral temperature to be accurate, you must not have had anything hot or cold to drink for at least 10 minutes prior to inserting the thermometer. 
For Children

7.Place the end of the thermometer under your child's dry armpit to take what's known as an axillary temperature. The armpit should be dry.
8.Hold the thermometer in place by gently pressing your child's elbow against the side of his chest.
9.Remove the thermometer after 4 minutes. To ensure accuracy, check the temperature of the opposite armpit.
1..Read under a bright light.
1..Consider temperature strips and temperature-sensitive pacifiers. However, these have been found to be inadequate and inaccurate, so use them with caution, only when no other method is available.  
There are also disposable chemical-dot oral strips to take the temperatures of youngsters. They are somewhat accurate but must be kept beside the tongue for a full 60 seconds.
In most hospitals, pediatric nurses use electronic ear thermometers.
Use a thermometer specifically designed for taking an oral temperature. Do not use the same thermometer for oral and rectal temperatures. A rectal thermometer has an end that's more stout and stumpy.
Normal oral reading is 98.6 degrees F and normal axillary temperature is 97.6 degrees F. 
Warnings: Never heat a thermometer, either under hot water or by placing it on a hot surface.   

How to Live Healthfully With HIV Drugs

1.Educate yourself. Find out how your drugs work and why they are necessary for your health.
2.Know what to expect. Ask your doctor and pharmacist about possible side effects; inform yourself of the dangers of missing doses.
3.Use simple events in your daily routine, such as brushing your teeth or watching a favorite TV show as cues to take your medication. In other words, make your drug regimen a habit.
4.Keep a medication diary to keep track of dosages.
5.Take medication with food and water, unless directed otherwise by your pharmacist or physician.
6.Plan any changes in routine well in advance. Vacations, business trips, weekends or holidays will alter your schedule, but if you are prepared, you can still adhere to your regimen.
7.Take time out to do the things that you enjoy most in life. Stress and depression can divert you from your routine.
8.Talk to your doctor. Ask questions, discuss any difficulties, complain about side effects. He or she can also help you tailor a drug regimen to your lifestyle.
9.Enlist the support of your family and friends and fellow patients. 
Ask your physician whether it is possible to take combinations of anti-retroviral drugs that have similar dosing schedules to make it easier on yourself.
If a drug does not agree with you after you attempt to follow the regimen, notify your doctor. He or she can work with you to alter that regimen if it produces intolerable side effects.
Give yourself an occasional reward to keep yourself motivated. Go shopping, take a day off of work, visit a spa. You deserve it.  
If you have any questions or concerns, contact a physician or other health care professional before engaging in any activity related to health and diet. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment.   

How to Take an Essay Exam

1.Look over the entire exam so that you know all the tasks that lie before you.
2.Order the questions according to what you know best. Start with the one you feel you can answer best.
3.Set a time limit for each question, and stick to it.
4.Make an outline to structure your answer. Follow your outline as you write.
5.Don't look over your answer once you're done; instead, move on to the next question. If you have time left over, then go over your answers.
6.Remember to pay more attention to content than to style. Your teacher understands the tight constraints of an essay exam and will make allowances. 
Your most effective weapon in taking an essay exam is studying well. (See "How to Study for an Essay Exam.")
Bring a watch so that you don't have to rely on anyone else's timekeeping.
If your teacher likes certain buzzwords, throw them in. Just make sure you use them correctly. 
Warnings: If you feel a time crunch, don't panic. Instead, take a deep breath, and spend a minute or two thinking about how to rebudget your time.   Steps:
1.Study hard for the exam (see Related How).
2.Bring as much material as the teacher or professor will allow. If you're lucky, this will include lecture notes and study notes.
3.Decide on the order in which you will answer the questions. First tackle the questions you're most confident answering, to help get you into the groove.
4.Allot yourself a realistic amount of time to answer each question.
5.Scan through your materials for anything that might be relevant to the question.
6.Use sticky notes or tabs to mark places where you find useful information.
7.Make an outline for your answer based both on your knowledge and on the information you found.
8.Write your answer by following the outline and looking up material as you go.
9.Repeat this process for each question.
1..Don't look over your answer once you're done; instead, move on to the next question. If you have spare time at the end of the exam, go over your answers at that point. 
Bring a watch so that you don't have to rely on anyone else's timekeeping.
Watch the time closely as you write your answers. The problem with an open-book exam is that you have so much information at your disposal that you could write forever.
Pay more attention to content than to style. Your teacher understands the tight constraints of a timed exam and will make allowances. 
Avoid accusations of cheating by making sure you only bring the materials allowed by your teacher or professor.
If you're running short on time, don't panic, since panic feeds on itself. Instead, take a deep breath and think about how to re-allocate your time.   Steps:
1.Write down the date.
2.Draw a vertical line down the lined portion of the page, about one-third of the way over from the left margin.
3.Write down categories and questions on the left side of the line as the lecture proceeds - for instance, "What to do if you catch fire."
4.Put specifics and answers on the right side of the line - for instance, "1. Stop; 2. Drop; 3. Roll."
5.Use abbreviations to keep up with your professors. Simple symbols include an up arrow for "increase" and a right arrow for "led to" or "resulted in."
6.Note anything you're unclear about at the top of the page, and ask about it during the question period. 
Number lists for ease of structuring and recall.
Review your lecture notes the evening of the day you took them. This will help the knowledge stick in your mind.
Consider studying for exams by covering the right side of your notes and using the left side as a "trigger" to help you recall details.   Steps:
1.Budget enough time for taking notes. The time you spend now will pay off down the line with less review time and increased retention.
2.Date your notes, and write full bibliographic information next to the date, including author, title, publication, date of publication, city, publisher, and volume number for journal articles.
3.Take notes in outline form to structure the material, and break it into related chunks and subchunks.
4.Use the structure of the book (or article) as the structure of your notes. For instance, chapters correspond to major headings, chapter sections to subheadings.
5.Note anything that is pertinent to the author's argument; try to avoid trivial minutiae. Important points tend to come in introductory and concluding paragraphs.
6.Distinguish facts from opinions, and quotations from summaries, in a way that will make it clear which is which when you review your notes.
7.Review your reading notes the next day, and do it again a few days later. This is a time-efficient way of retaining the material. 
Consider using index cards if you're taking notes for a research paper. Be sure to list the bibliographic information on a separate, numbered card. This will make your notes much easier to organize.
One way of deciding what is relevant is to "cheat" by reading the conclusion first so that you'll know what's important as soon as you come across it in the text.
Use abbreviations in your notes. For instance, an upward-pointing arrow for "increase" and a delta for "change." 
Warnings: If you're writing down a quotation, make sure you get it exactly right.   

How to Childproof a Bathroom

1.Secure all lower bathroom cabinets with safety latches.
2.Store medication, vitamins, hair bleach, hair dye, bathroom cleanser and other hazardous solutions in a locked cabinet or in another room.
3.Be sure to keep bathroom door shut and use doorknob safety guards to prevent children from entering the bathroom.
4.Keep toilet seat lids down at all times; lock them with special lid locks.
5.Use nonskid mats or adhesive safety strips in the bathtub and shower to prevent slipping.
6.Install electrical outlets protected by ground-fault circuit breakers to prevent electric shock.
7.Set your water heater at 120 degrees F or install anti-scald devices on faucets. 
Tips: Purchase safe tub toys to make bath time fun. 
Never allow children to play in bathrooms.
Never leave children alone in the bathtub; they can drown in just two inches of water.
Change a baby on a changing table, not on bathroom countertops.   Steps:
1.Store tools in locked toolboxes.
2.Lock up chemicals, paints and gardening solutions.
3.Lock garage refrigerators and freezers.
4.Make sure your garage door has a system that automatically stops and reverses the door when the electric-eye beam is broken or the door touches an object in its path.
5.Make sure steps from inside the house to the garage are up-to-code and not dangerous.
6.Keep car keys up high and away from children.
7.Sand or otherwise repair wood with splinters.
8.Secure loose wires and heavy gardening equipment.  
Tips: Purchase storage bins or install shelves to keep potential hazards out of reach of children. 
Never allow children to play in the garage.
Make sure you know exactly what is in your garage.   Steps:
1.Store matches, lighters, sharp utensils and household cleaners in a cabinet accessible only to adults.
2.Put child-safety latches on all lower-level cabinets.
3.Unplug appliances when not in use and keep cords out of reach of children.
4.Never pour hot liquid near a child and never leave hot drinks within reach.
5.Use the back burners of the stove and turn pot handles toward the back.
6.Purchase safety features that secure free-standing ovens to the wall.
7.Watch out for tablecloths - since small children enjoy pulling on the cloth, glasses and plates can fall off.
8.Keep stools and chairs away from counters and stoves.
9.Be sure to keep alcohol locked away from children.
10.Cook meat, eggs, poultry and shellfish thoroughly to prevent food poisoning.
11.Always wash your hands with soap after handling meat or poultry.
12.Use a child-safety gate, if possible, in the doorway to keep children out of the kitchen completely when you are in another room. 
Since children enjoy "helping" in the kitchen, give them large plastic containers and wooden spoons to play with while you're cooking.
Let children help you with simple, safe tasks such as putting cookie dough on pans. 
Warnings: Many kitchen accidents occur within seconds. It's best to keep small children out of the kitchen completely.  Steps:
1.Cover all electrical outlets with childproof outlet covers.
2.Keep potted plants out of the reach of children.
3.Place corner guards on all furniture with sharp edges, such as coffee tables, shelves and end tables.
4.Do not use glass tabletops in rooms where children play.
5.Put all breakable items out of reach.
6.Do not put breakable objects on tabletops.
7.Have a safety expert secure bookshelves, wall units and other dangerous items to the wall.
8.Make sure doors are locked to prevent children from going outside unattended.
9.Cover fireplace with special fireplace safety screen available at baby stores.
10.Remove all items a child could choke on.
11.Keep floors clear of tripping hazards, such as electrical cords and throw rugs.
12.Check electrical cords regularly to ensure they are not frayed or dangerous in any way. 
Secure electrical cords with plastic tubing.
Reroute children to family room or playroom. 
Never put furniture under windows.
Always lock windows when children are present.   Steps:
1.Install safety gates at both the top and bottom of stairs. Use gates that use tension rods or that screw into stair handrails and open with a latch screw.
2.Keep stairs free from clutter: toys, shoes and anything else that could cause a fall.
3.Make sure your handrails extend the entire length of the stairway. If not, install handrails that do. 
Install smoke detectors and carbon-monoxide detectors on each level of your house, particularly near the top of the stairs on the second floor. Check your batteries every month and replace them every year.
Pay the extra money and have an expert install safety gates, smoke detectors and carbon-monoxide detectors. 
Supervise children whenever they're on the stairs.
Stairs are not a safe place for children to play.   Steps:
1.Check for and fix any leaking toilets or faucets.
2.Use low-flow shower heads.
3.Install shutoff valves to reduce flow while soaping and shampooing.
4.Catch the flow of cool water in buckets while you're waiting for it to heat up; you can use it later for gardening or cooking.
5.Insulate hot-water pipes.
6.Turn the water off while brushing your teeth or shaving.
7.Avoid washing dishes under a running faucet – rinse them in a pan instead.
8.Wait until you have a full load before running the dishwasher or clothes washing machine, and use the shortest cycles.
9.Take shorter showers.
10.Avoid wasting bath water while waiting for it to warm up. Cold water will mix quickly with hot water to give you the temperature you want.
11.Clean driveways and sidewalks with a broom rather than hosing them down.   

How to Know if You Are Anemic

1.Examine your skin tone. Do you have very pale skin color? Even if you have a dark complexion, your lips may be pale and your skin may appear "washed out."
2.Consider whether you are fatigued or irritable all of the time. These are common symptoms of anemia.
3.Ask yourself whether you have frequent headaches or loss of appetite. These are usually early signs of anemia.
4.Consider if you've been constipated - also an early symptom, and may occur without any change in dietary habits.
5.Consider whether it is difficult for you to concentrate. This can affect your work and/or school performance.
6.Ask yourself whether you're craving unusual foods. This is called pica, and you may find yourself craving very bizarre non-foods, such as soil and paper.
7.Take note of your moods. Anemia can bring on feelings of depression.
8.Consider whether you've been short of breath. Red blood cells are a vital part of the respiratory process, and this symptom may occur when anemia is moderate to severe.
9.Take note of whether you feel a sense of coldness in your extremities. This may be caused by poor circulation as a result of anemia.
1..As yourself if you've been feeling weak and/or dizzy. In severe cases, you may feel too weak to get out of bed, and dizzy when you do get up. 
Once you develop a sore tongue and/or sores in your mouth, or cessation of menstruation if you are a woman, anemia is well-established.
If you eat on the run, eat primarily processed foods, skip meals or go on periodic crash diets, you may not be getting enough iron and other nutrients in your diet. If you are having symptoms, it is possible you may be anemic. Anemia may also be caused by an underlying medical disorder as well as insufficient intake and/or absorption of nutrients such as iron. Having a blood test is the only way to diagnose anemia. If you suspect you are anemic, you should see a doctor. 
Warnings: Don't begin taking high doses of iron supplements if you do not know for a fact that you are anemic. Iron can be toxic in high doses. Symptoms of anemia can mimic those of other health problems, and iron deficiency is not the only cause of anemia. 
Overall Warnings: If symptoms persist or if you have specific medical conditions or concerns, contact a physician. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment. 

How to Decide Whether to Believe Online Product Reviews

1.Find out who or what paid for the review, if anyone. If the review has been funded or sponsored by a particular company or manufacturer, the review may be biased.
2.Determine whether the entity providing the review is trustworthy. Is it a legitimate consumer advocate group or neutral publication? Or an amateur with his or her own Web page? Is it a site that sells the products being reviewed? If so, manufacturers might be paying for review slots.
3.Look for comments on the specific features and operations of a specific product rather than overall impressions or sarcastic comments. This will help ensure that what you're buying suits your specific needs.
4.Make sure any safety issues are thoroughly and objectively addressed.
5.Look for quantifiable data, if applicable. (Exactly how fast did a computer perform a certain operation, for example?)
6.Look for other reviews by the person whose review you're reading. This will help you get an idea of any general biases the reviewer may have.
7.Read multiple reviews from various sources, including a few printed reviews (in magazines or newspapers), if possible. This will help you determine what to believe.    

How to Fit Ski Boots

1.Find a shop and a salesperson you feel comfortable with.
2.Talk about your level of ability, the size and shape of your foot, the kind of skiing you want to do and how often you go.
3.Have the salesperson measure both of your feet for length and width. Take note of any pronation, instep problems or unusual features.
4.Try on several makes and models.
5.Learn to use the mechanisms to adjust the fit.
6.Wear boots for up to half an hour.
7.Notice if the boot tongue flexes when you squat and push against it - this is good for most recreational skiers.
8.There should be 1/4 inch in front of your toes. Your heel shouldn't wiggle or lift.
9.Avoid cheap or on-sale boots if they're not the perfect fit.  
Rear-entry boots are easier to put on but lack performance and fit. Mid-entry or overlap boots have features ideal for the intermediate or advanced skier.
All boots have a stiff outer shell with a soft inner boot to insulate your foot, both of which can be heat treated to customize the fit.
Wear the socks you wear skiing. If you use foot warmers, try the boots on with foot warmers in place. 
Warnings: Ski boots can cost hundreds of dollars. Spend time shopping for the best possible fit in your price range. 

How to Put Your Baby to Bed

1.Remember that how your baby spends her day affects how easily she will be able to fall asleep at night. Overstimulation in the way of too much noise or activity can keep babies, especially more sensitive ones, awake.
2.Observe your baby to see when she's getting tired. The signs might include crankiness, poor coordination or rubbing her eyes.
3.Talk to her. Tell her it's time for bed soon so she can rest and feel good tomorrow. Let her know the sequence of events so she will learn to anticipate them: "You're going to have a bath, then we'll read a story, then I'll give you your teddy bear and tuck you in."
4.Keep your bedtime routine quiet and soothing. Warm baths, soft music or cuddling with a book is relaxing. Sing a lullaby. Babies love the sound of Mom or Dad's voice.
5.Put your baby in bed while she's awake. If she's nursing or having a bottle before bed, try to stop the feeding before she drops off to sleep so she won't wake up in the middle of the night and have no memory of how she got in her crib.
6.Talk to your baby if she cries when you put her in bed. You can say, "I hear you crying." If she is very upset, you might sit by her crib or stand near her for a few minutes. Intervene as little as possible. Allow her the opportunity to learn how to calm herself and drop off to sleep. 
Give your baby a transitional object such as a blanket or stuffed animal to ease the transition from awake to sleep time.
Recapture the day. Talk about what your baby did: "We visited Grandma. You had bananas for lunch. We went for a walk." This builds a gentle bridge between today and tomorrow.
Continue building the bridge by saying goodnight to your child's toys and telling her that they will be waiting for her in the morning.  Steps:
1.Call first. Remind Grandma and Grandpa to move treasured figurines out of reach of little hands, preferably before your child sees them and wants to play with them.
2.Pack safety items you may need, such as simple press-on outlet covers, twist-ties to secure blind cords, or removable edge/corner guards for tables and low shelves.
3.Quickly tour the area your child will be in, preferably on your hands and knees. This will allow you to see possible hazards from her level.
4.Check closets and drawers, and remove dangerous objects like pens, lighters and matches. Remember to look under beds as well.
5.Move houseplants out of reach. Not only can some be toxic, but they also provide a great opportunity for your child to make a mess or injure herself with a falling pot.
6.Make sure that bags or purses containing medication are out of reach. Grandparents often replace childproof caps with caps that are easier for them to remove.
7.Lower the toilet lid and close the bathroom door. You’ll reduce the risk of drowning and eliminate the opportunity for your child to lock herself in the bathroom.
8.Ask if outside doors and doors to other rooms within the house can be closed, and ideally locked. This makes it much easier to keep track of your child if she tends to wander.
9.Bring toys and books from home, making your child less likely to get into other things.
1..Be cautious with pets that may not be used to children and their quick, unpredictable movements.
1..Supervise! There’s no substitute for the watchful eye of an adult. 
Tips: If your child will be sleeping in a big bed, bring a portable guardrail, or pull a couple of high-backed chairs next to the bed so that she can’t fall out. 
If your child has food allergies, remind grandparents ahead of time, and suggest a list of appropriate snacks. Allergy attacks are common when children eat unfamiliar foods.
Ask Grandma and Grandpa not to leave out bowls of nuts or candy, which could pose a choking hazard.
Watch out for dangling blind and curtain cords; ask if you can tie them out of reach with a twist-tie or piece of string.   

How to Wake Front-to-Back Air on a Kneeboard

1.Start on the right side of the wake, holding the rope in the palms-down grip.
2.Cut hard toward the wake, sighting your takeoff point ahead of you.
3.Pop your board up as you hit the crest of the wake, and pull the rope handle toward your left hip.
4.Turn your head and torso to the right as you enter the air, starting your spin.
5.Keep the handle pulled against your left hip and lean forward, away from the boat, as you rotate to a backward-facing position in the air.
6.Push down with your knees to raise your board's tail higher than the nose.
7.Land nose first on the opposite wake and continue riding backward. The rope handle will be pulled across the front of your body in what is called the "wrapped" position. 
Control the pitch of your board by either pulling up or pushing down with your knees. Try not to control your board by leaning forward or backward. Lean against the pull of the boat.
It's crucial that the board land nose first. 
Warnings: Always wear a life vest and observe proper boating safety practices when kneeboarding. 

How to Avoid Internet Fraud

1.Buy from the companies you know and trust.
2.Use the Internet to research a company's history. You can find a lot of information on the corporate Web site.
3.Check Feedback Direct's ratings and reviews of other consumers before you buy (see Related Sites).
4.Guard your personal information. Give your credit card number only if you are making a purchase, never to verify your identity.
5.Refuse to give out your Social Security number unless you are applying for credit or employment.
6.Pay by credit card. You can dispute charges through the credit card issuer if you have problems later.
7.Be aware that there are differences between sales by an individual and sales by a business. Your legal rights may differ based on whether the seller is an individual or a business. You may have difficulty pursuing your complaint against an individual if the merchandise was misrepresented, broken (defective) or never delivered.
8.Avoid judging reliability by how nice or polished a Web site seems. It is relatively easy and inexpensive for anyone to create, register and promote a Web site.
9.Avoid downloading programs just to see pictures, listen to music or get access to other features from Web sites with which you are unfamiliar. You could end up downloading a computer virus that wipes out your computer files.