1.Choose a topic that is broad enough to be interesting but narrow enough to be manageable.
2.Find your sources. Start with three or four, check their bibliographies for additional sources, and repeat the process until you have enough material to work with.
3.Reserve one index card for each source. Record the bibliographic information for the source on its index card, and number each card for ease of future reference.
4.Take reading notes on index cards, writing down only the material that is most relevant to your project. Write the source number on each card.
5.Organize your index cards by topic and subtopic.
6.Use the cards as a basis for an outline (see “How to Outline a Paper”).
7.Write an introduction that grabs the reader and plots out the trajectory of your argument.
8.Write the body of the paper, following the structure you created in your outline. Be sure to cite sources.
9.Write the conclusion, reviewing how you've made your points.
1..Come up with a title after you've written the paper, not before: You don't want the content of the paper to be hamstrung by an inappropriate title.
1..Read your paper at least twice to be sure your argument makes sense and is presented logically.
1..Proofread carefully; teachers hate typographical errors. Use your word processor’s spelling checker, but don’t rely on it utterly.
Don’t leave such a difficult task to the last minute. Start early, and work gradually.
Use bibliography software to help manage your sources. Consult a style guide, such as the MLA (Modern Language Association) manual of style, for details on citation of sources.
Consider taking a class on writing a research paper.
Warnings: Be sure to cite your sources whenever you make use of an idea from someone else. (See "How to Avoid Plagiarism in a Research Paper.")
1.Know that projectile vomiting is sudden and particularly forceful vomiting that often occurs without much warning.
2.Understand that projectile vomiting is more common in children than in adults. It can be a symptom of congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in infants. One in 500 babies is born with this condition, and it's more common in boys.
3.Be aware that projectile vomiting in an adult can be a symptom of pyloric muscle spasm due to scarring from a peptic ulcer.
4.Suspect that projectile vomiting is a symptom of poisoning - the body may be aggressively trying to rid itself of a toxin. Drug-overdose patients often experience projectile vomiting.
5.Evaluate your child for a reaction to a head injury if he or she suddenly starts to projectile vomit. It's a symptom of concussion. Call your pediatrician or go to the emergency room if your child has had a head injury.
6.Understand that projectile vomiting accompanied by severe diarrhea can be symptomatic of stomach flu.
7.Expect that projectile vomiting will be short-lived. If you continue to vomit with tremendous force even after the contents of your stomach has been emptied, call your doctor, especially if you are elderly.
Warnings: This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment.
1.Place a short jump rope on the ground at Station 1.
2.Fill four or five large cardboard boxes with large (institution-sized), empty vegetable cans, bottom side up, for Station 2. Place these "jumping boxes" in a straight row 3 feet apart from each other and 10 or more feet away from Station 1.
3.Put a large gymnastics mat on the ground for Station 3. Set it several feet away from the jumping boxes.
4.Place a large (2 by 6 feet), sturdy table perpendicular to the direction of the course and at least 10 feet away from the gymnastics mat for Station 4.
5.Lay a large gymnastics mat across the table with the folds of the mat at the table's edges. Place another mat on the ground on the far side of the table.
6.Place another jumping box (or other sturdy wooden box) several feet past the table for Station 5.
7.Make a row of four hula hoops (or tires for more agile runners) farther down and in the direction of the course for Station 6. Make sure each hoop touches the next one.
8.Place another row of four hoops alongside the first row, nestling the rows into each other so that the end result is eight slightly staggered hoops.
9.End the course with another gymnastics mat for Station 7.
Tips: Use vegetable cans of the same size in Station 2 so the inner surface is level.
Running the Course
1..Begin the obstacle course by jumping rope 10 times.
1..Run to Station 2, and jump onto the first box with both feet, then jump onto the ground, then hop onto the next box with both feet and so on.
1..Speed over to Station 3, and move across the gymnastics mat any way you choose - crawling, inching like a worm or somersaulting.
1..Head over to Station 4, and climb or vault over the table.
1..Dash to the box at Station 5. Step up and down on the box 10 times using only one leg at a time.
1..Run to Station 6 and the rows of hula hoops. Place only one foot in each hoop - and don't miss a hoop.
1..Dash to the mat at Station 7, and do 10 quick sit-ups.
1..Take a breather; the course is complete!
Overall Warnings: If your children have any condition that would impair or limit their ability to engage in physical activity, please consult a physician before attempting this activity. This information is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment.
1.Find a privacy program that uses public-private key encryption or a similar system.
2.Install the program onto your computer, making sure to install any plug-ins that might be necessary for your particular e-mail software so that the privacy program can be installed directly into your e-mail program.
3.Create a public key for yourself using the encryption software. The software will probably ask you how large the key should be. Keep in mind that larger keys are more secure but also take longer to encrypt.
4.Send your public key to anyone who will be sending you e-mail. Make it as accessible as possible by posting it on a server or including it in your outgoing messages.
5.Gather the public keys of other people to whom you wish to send encrypted e-mail.
6.When someone wants to send you a secure e-mail, they'll use your public key to encrypt the message.
7.When you receive an encrypted e-mail, it will look like a group of random symbols until you use your privacy program's private key to decode it. Because you created the public key, only you have the appropriate private key, and therefore, only you can read the e-mail.
8.Use your program's public-key function to send someone a secure e-mail message encrypted with that person's public key.
9.When you send an e-mail that has been encrypted with a public key, it can be read only by the person who created the public key.
Digital certificates are an alternative to public-private key encryption, although they function in a similar manner. To receive encrypted e-mail, you must send your digital certificate to the individuals who wish to send you e-mail.
If your e-mail program isn't compatible with your privacy program's plug-ins, there should be a stand-alone version of the privacy program that you can use in addition to your e-mail software.
The above guidelines are very general. Follow the specific instructions in your program's manual.
1.Slow down. Don't speed around schools or in neighborhoods.
2.Watch for school zones. If any school-zone sign in your neighborhood is not easily seen, work with the school to get the situation fixed.
3.Take special care around school buses. In some states, laws require cars to remain stopped for as long as a school bus loads and unloads its passengers.
4.Expect the unexpected. A child's reaction to danger differs from that of an adult. Sometimes the approach of a car will prompt a child to run faster across the street instead of staying on the sidewalk as an adult may do.
5.Expect what's to be expected, too. When a ball or a dog goes into the street, look for a child to follow.
6.Watch the ground. Sometimes a glimpse of feet is the only warning that a young pedestrian is about to enter traffic. Look also for bicycle wheels, dog paws and moving shadows.
7.Scan from side to side to stay aware of children playing on the sidewalk or along the road. Because their eyesight and hearing are still developing, children may not always sense when a moving car presents danger. In fact, a surprising number of youngsters become injured running into the sides of cars.
8.Look around, under and between cars and other objects. Because children are small, they can be hidden.
9.Be alert in parking lots. The street is not the only place of danger. The combination of kids, buses and cars trigger a lot of incidents in school parking lots and driveways. Don't let your guard down.
1.Rustproof your frame if it's steel (see "How to Prevent Rust in Your Bike Frame," under Related Hows).
2.Install fenders if you plan to ride in the rain (see "How to Choose Fenders for Your Bike," under Related Hows).
3.Install tires that will work well on wet pavement, in the mud or on snow (see "How to Buy a Bike Tire," under Related Hows).
4.Lower your seat a little if winter conditions will require a bit more power than usual.
5.Buy a thicker, more durable chain lubricant (see "How to Buy a Bike Lube," under Related Hows).
6.Keep your chain and all cables properly lubed.
Tips: Spring is a great time to bring your bike in for a tuneup. Winter riding can be very hard on the drivetrain, cables and brake pads.
Warnings: Always wear a helmet when cycling.
1.Take medication as prescribed. Most oral antibiotics are taken for 10 days.
2.Reduce activity until your cough is gone.
3.Avoid cigarette smoke and irritants in the air, and stay away from people who are sick. Your immune system is already working overtime.
4.Wear a mask when you go outside in the cold air. Fresh air is healthful to your lungs, but cold air is not.
5.Avoid cough suppressants. A productive cough will help clear the lungs of germ-ridden phlegm. Take an expectorant, such as guaifenesin, if ordered by your doctor.
6.Take analgesics sparingly. Children should only be given acetaminophen.
7.Humidify the air in your house with a vaporizer. Sit in a hot shower or bath.
8.Check your temperature once a day. Any sudden spike should be reported to your doctor.
9.Take lots of deep breaths. Inhale as much air as your lungs can take in, and then hold your breath for 5 to 10 seconds. Exhale forcefully, but steadily. Repeat this 10 times. Do deep breathing exercises at least five times a day.
1..Apply a heating pad to your chest if muscles feel sore and achy.
Take it easy. Chores will still be there after you get well. If you push yourself while you have pneumonia, you may lengthen your recovery time by two or three months.
Avoid dairy products if you find that they cause your mucus to thicken.
Warnings: If you have any questions or concerns, contact a physician or other health care professional before engaging in any activity related to health and diet. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment.
1.Brush your skin with a loofah or skin brush when you shower to stimulate circulation.
2.Massage cocoa butter into the stretch marks.
3.Use vitamin E oil on your stretch marks. Massage it into your skin after a shower.
4.Talk to your doctor about using tretinoin cream on stretch marks. It is available by prescription only.
5.Eat foods high in vitamins A, E and C (see Related Hows), or take supplements in addition to your diet. However, pregnant women should avoid taking more than 25,000 IU of vitamin A.
6.Add foods or supplements to your diet that are high in zinc (see Related How), which is good for the skin, and silica (beets, brown rice, bell peppers, soybeans, leafy green vegetables and whole grains), which helps form collagen, the supporting fibers in the skin.
7.Eat foods that contain essential fatty acids, which help make cell walls. Essential fatty acids can be found in many vegetables, vegetable oils and fish oils.
Lasers have shown some promise in reducing the appearance of stretch marks. They seem to work best on stretch marks that are still fairly new and are red or purple in color.
Check your local supermarket or drugstore for commercial creams such as Belly Butter, a moisturizing and replenishing maternity body cream.
Warnings: Always consult your doctor or a medical professional before making changes to your diet.
Covering the Corners
1.Cover the bottom corners of the calendar using contact paper or wallpaper.
2.Cut a square piece of contact paper large enough to cover the entire corner with excess around the edges.
3.Lay the straight edge of the piece of contact paper on top of the corner and trace around the outsides.
4.Measure and add 1/2 inch to the outside edges of the corner piece. This will be folded to the back of the calendar.
5.Peel the paper backing of the contact paper and lay it on the corner with the straight edge even with the top of the corner piece on the calendar.
6.Clip the tip of the contact paper with scissors so you can fold the edges under the calendar.
7.Fold the excess behind the calendar.
Covering the Top
8.Measure the top of the calendar to be covered, which is usually about 7/8 inch wide by 22 inches long.
9.Cut a piece of contact paper about 1 1/2 inches wide by 24 inches long. This will give you excess to fold to the back of the calendar.
1..Peel one end of the contact paper about an inch (this will be the overlap on the edge) and lay it on the top of the calendar.
1..Peel the backing off and slowly stick it to the top of the calendar, keeping the edge straight.
1..Clip the corners and fold the excess to the back.
1..Add trivia or personal messages throughout the months. A simple "You're the Best" can brighten even the worst day. Some days to remember are May 4, which is National Teachers Day, and October 16, which is Dictionary Day.
Overall Tips: You might want to cover the back of the calendar. It can be flipped over at night and give your teacher something to brighten her morning when she sits down at her desk.
1.Take everything out of the box. Separate nuts and bolts, beams and crosspieces, swings and any slide equipment.
2.If there are any directions in the box, read them.
3.Lay out the large pieces of the set in the play area.
4.Arrange the pieces in the way they will be assembled, but do not bolt them together yet.
5.Make sure you have all the nuts and bolts you need. If the play set is plastic, make sure the joints fit together by testing the fit of two small pieces.
6.Make sure no part of the play set must be sunk into the ground. If anything does, such as a sliding pole, be prepared to get a posthole digger and a bag of cement, or buy a less complicated swing set. This is rarely necessary, fortunately.
7.Attach two of the uprights together at one end. On a traditional swing set, the uprights will form an angle of about 35 degrees. Bolt them together with the fasteners provided.
8.Attach any bracing to the uprights. The bracing will likely attach halfway up the poles.
9.Place the crosspiece, usually a long metal tube or heavy piece of wood, so that one end meets the top of the uprights where they are attached. Make sure any holes or hooks in the crosspiece's middle are facing the right direction - so they'll be facing down when you're through. You will attach swings and slides to these.
1..Get your children and all of their friends to hold the crosspiece upright.
1..Bolt the crosspiece to the uprights with the fasteners provided.
1..Build the second triangle from the remaining uprights.
1..Assemble your children and all of their friends along the uprights. Count to three. On three, lift the uprights. Hold the crosspiece firmly and lift as the children raise the uprights.
1..Raise the remaining two uprights on the far end of the crosspiece. Bolt the crosspiece to the remaining upright. You should now have something that looks like a pole sitting atop two triangles.
1..Attach the swing(s) to the hooks provided.
1..Attach the slide.
Tips: Have some extra nuts and bolts on hand. You'll probably lose a few in the process.
Warnings: Don't try to do this yourself. You won't have enough hands.